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Diversity and Cultural Competence of the Canadian Chiropractic Profession: A cross-sectional study

Background: The need to develop and achieve cultural agility and address issues of diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI) are identified priorities of the Canadian chiropractic profession. In 2020, the Canadian Chiropractic Association (CCA) adopted a formal statement on DEI and introduced strategic initiatives to address inequalities and improve access to chiropractic care for all Canadians. In so doing, the CCA is engaging in informed strategies leading to the development, assessment, and implementation of activities to enhance the cultural agility of its members. However, little is known about the current state of the profession with respect to DEI. Specifically, there have been no large-scale studies exploring the diversity of Canadian chiropractors. Further a formal measure of cultural agility (i.e. cultural competence) has not been established.

Aim: We aim to conduct a survey of members of the CCA.


  1.  To explore the diversity of the Canadian chiropractic profession
  2. To measure the cultural agility of members of the CCA.
  3. To explore contextual factors and unique challenges in delivering chiropractic care to patients from diverse communities and cultural groups

Implications: Information from this study will provide benchmark metrics in support of the profession’s efforts to address diversity, equity and inclusion. Findings will help inform strategies the enhance the cultural agility of the chiropractic profession (e.g. training and education, recruitment of chiropractors from underrepresented minority groups). Finally, results of this study will help to guide policy in the pursuit of more equitable delivery of chiropractic care.

Funding: This study is funded by the Canadian Chiropractic Association (CCA)

Team Members:

Silvano Mior DC, PhD (Prinicpal Investigator)
Pierre Côté DC, PhD (Co-Principal Investigator)
Nora Bakaa DC, PhD (candidate) (McMaster University) (Co-Principal Investigator)
Danielle Southerst DC (Research Project Manager)
Luciana Macedo PT, PhD (McMaster University) (Co-investigator)
Lisa Carlesso PT, PhD (McMaster University)  (Co-investigator)
Joy MacDermid PT, PhD (Western University)  (Co-investigator)
Poonam Cardoso BHS, PMP (Research Administration Officer)